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Mycosis

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> Onychomycosis, What are they?

Onychomycosis are nail infections caused by fungi (dermatophytes, yeasts and molds) and represent the most common disease of nails. This pathology can affect both fingernails and toenails, but the last are the most common. Onychomycosis develop on the nail as the fungus feeds on keratin compact that forms the nail plate.
How do they develop?
The fungal colonization of nail is facilitated by many factors,that are environmental, professional, behavioural and also by the presence of local and general phatologies. For instance the use of narrow, heavy and occlusive footwear can be a trigger or concomitant factor in disorders of the nails. The growing habit to play sports in gyms and in swimming pools and so in the use of common showers and dressing room, represent important risk factors foor the developing of feet 's onychomycosis. Many workplaces that involve repeated contact with water, detergents, irritant solutions predispose to the risk of fingernails' onychomycosis. Also gardening and walking barefoot on grass can be cosidered as predisposing factors to these infections. The most important factors. The most important risks are related above all to obsolescence, to which follows a higher incidence of chronic cardiovascular disease (atherosclerosis, hypertension, venous insufficiency, diabetes) and in diseases characterized by immune deficiencies.

Consequences
A physical examination of the affected area by the dermatologist is essential for a diagnosis of onychomycosis. The treatment is made with products called antifungal and can be made through local preparation (gels, nail polish), that must be put daily(it is not obbligatory to remove the previous application). It is important not to stop the treatment when they disappear or reduce but is essencial to continue it till for all the time that the dermatologist has said.

Good advices
Take care of your nails

A damaged nail has more probabilities to develop a mycosis because it is easier to attract fungi.

Dry well the spaces between the toes
Avoid to walk barefoot in public areas(swimming pools, gyms)
Wash all the clohing that entere in contact with the affected area at least at 60°
Wear clothes and footwear taht make the foot breathe(an eccessive sweating facilitates the develpoment of mycosis
Care about the hygiene and the health of feet's skin

> Mycosis

The word mycosis indicates the condition in which some pathogenetic fungi exceed the strength of body barriers or those of animals, provoking infections. The term derives from greek ''µικòς'' (fungus).

Mycosis is the most common skin infection, caused by microscopic fungi , our usual parasites. They can arouse lesions on the cutis or on mucous membranes (dermatitis), while more rarely they can create forms of deep and visceral micoses. The fungi, that cause the mayor part of mycosis, are the Dermatophytes and Yeasts. Between the Dermatophytes, the most frequent disorders are caused by pityriasis, erythrasma and tinea while between the yeasts the most important is candida. The pityriasis is very common, it appears on the trunk, neck and shoulders with spots of variable colour (pink, light brown, dark brown) not pruritic, that tend to desquamate. Usually patients realize to become infected after being at the sea or after a period of exposure to sun, because tanned skin highlights mycotic lesions as light spots. Indeed the fungus, that provokes pityriasis versicolor, inhibits the synthesis of melanin. When the therapy has been completed, it may happened that some spots continue to be visible, even if were completely eliminated all the fungi resposible for the infection. These spots will disappear with a new exposure to the sun. It also exists a rosy pityriasis, or Gibert's pityriasis, whose cause is unknown but we think about a viral origin. It appears with very reddened lesions, which have an eruptive character. It appears above all between 10-40 years old and in auntumn and spring. It usually starts with a single spot localized generally on the trunk (called mother spot), that is followed by, after a period variable from some days to weeks, an eruption of various elements with the same features, of variable magnitude. It attacks the trunk and the root of limbs; generally the itch is moderate or absent and the lesions heal spontaneously in 5-6 weeks. Erythrasma causes red-dark brown spots on the skin of the inguinal folds. It may interest also the inner surface of tighs, armpit and between the toes(in this case it presents also little cuts).It attacks above all women and diabetics.Read More
Tinea attacks scalp (tinea capitis), beard (tinea barbae), feet (tinea pedis or athlet's foot), nails etc... It occurs with itch, desquamation and hairloss. Generally, it is transmitted through interhuman contagion or pets. Tinea capitis affects above all children (till 10 years old); it presents one or more rounded spots with a diameter about 5-6 cm, covered by white-greyish squame (in this area, hair appears broken and brittle). The desease, spontaneously, even if not cure, hails in puberty.
Tinea pedis is a very common mycosis, that affects above all in adulthood and during summer, because of the increased sweating and maceration, which benefit the infection. Generally, the contagion happens in places like gyms, swimming pools and showers. Firstly it appears with areas of desquamation and maceration, situated in the lateral part of fingers and in the back part between toes; subsequently may appear much more reddened lesions with vesicles and thin painful cuts in the skin, at this point the whole situation can spread to the back and to the footplant.
Candida can attacks internal organs, like female genital, but also the respiratory tract and the mouth. At skin level, it provokes above all onychomycosis, known also as an nails' infection, that become thickened, opaque with the tendency to go up.